balanced bridge - Condition that occurs when a bridge circuit is adjusted to produce a zero output.
band-pass filter - A tuned circuit designed to pass a band of frequencies between a lower cut-off frequency (f1) and a higher cut-off frequency (f2). Frequencies above and below the pass band are heavily attenuated.
band-stop filter - A tuned circuit designed to stop frequencies between a lower cut-off frequency (f1) and a higher cut-off frequency (f2) of the amplifier while passing all other frequencies.
bandwidth - Width of the band of frequencies between the half power points.
barrier potential - The natural difference of potential that exists across a forward biased pn junction.
base - The region that lies between the emitter and collector of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
base biasing - A method of biasing a BJT in which the bias voltage is supplied to the base by means of a resistor.
battery - A DC voltage source containing two or more cells that convert chemical energy to electrical energy.
baud - A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal events per second. Not necessarily the same as bits per second.
beta - (b) The ratio of collector current to base current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
bias - A DC voltage applied to a device to control its operation.
binary - A number system having only two symbols, 0 and 1. A base 2 number system.
bipolar junction transistor - (BJT), A three terminal device in which emitter to collector current is controlled by base current.
bistable multivibrator - A multivibrator with two stable states. An external signal is required to change the output from one state to the other. Also called a latch.
bleeder current - A current drawn continuously from a source. Bleeder current is used to stabilize the output voltage of a source.
bode plot - A graph of gain versus frequency.
branch current - The portion of total current flowing in one path of a parallel circuit.
breakdown voltage - Voltage at which the breakdown of a dielectric or insulator occurs.
break over voltage - Minimum voltage required to cause a diac to break down and conduct.
bridge rectifier - A circuit using four diodes to provide full wave rectification. Converts an AC voltage to a pulsating DC voltage.
buffer - An amplifier used to isolate a load from a source.
bulk resistance - The natural resistance of a "P" type or "N" type semiconductor material.
Butterworth filter - A type of active filter characterized by a constant gain (flat response) across the mid-band of the circuit and a 20 dB per decade roll-off rate for each pole contained in the circuit.
BW - Abbreviation for bandwidth.
bypass capacitor - A capacitor used to provide an AC ground at some point in a circuit.
byte - Group of eight binary digits or bits.