<electronics> Mass transport due to momentum exchange between conducting
electrons and diffusing metal atoms. Electromigration causes progressive damage
to the metal conductors in an integrated circuit. It is characteristic of metals
at very high current density and temperatures of 100C or more.
The term was coined by Professor Hilbert Huntington in the late 1950s because he
didn't like the German use of the word "electrotransport".
Mass transoport occurs via the Einstein relation J=DFC/kT where F is the driving
force for the transoport. For electromigraiton F is z*epj and z* is an
electromigration parameter relating the momentum exchange and z is the charge of
the "diffusing" species.
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