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# Synchronous Counters Tutorial

To overcome the "ripple through" effects of asynchronous counters, synchronous types are used. All the flip-flops are clocked simultaneously, and change state at the same time. Bear in mind, that when J and K are both low, a flip-flop will not change state, upon the arrival of a clock pulse. When J and K are both high, then Q will toggle upon the arrival of a clock pulse.

The two AND gates are decoders, which recognise the state of the A, B and C outputs. J and K of flip-flop 1 are tied high and it will always toggle on a clock pulse.

Flip-flop 3 cannot change state unless  AND 1 output is high (A and B high).

Flip-flop 4 cannot change state unless A, B and C are all high, making the output of AND 2 high.

At the start, all outputs can be set to zero by means of the CLEAR line. On the first clock pulse, A goes high, since J and K of flip-flop 1 are both tied high. The first and second flip-flops are now set to toggle on the next clock pulse.

On the second clock pulse, any flip-flops with J and K high will toggle. So A goes low and B goes high. On the third clock pulse, A goes high and B stays high. This means that J and K of flip-flop 3 are high. On the fourth clock pulse, A and B go low and C goes high. Flip-flop 4 can only toggle when A, B and C are all high.

This will be on the eighth clock pulse, when D goes high and A, B and C go low.

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