potential difference ==>
<electronics> (Or "potential difference", "electro-motive force" (EMF)) A
quantity measured as a signed difference between two points in an electrical
circuit which, when divided by the resistance in Ohms between those points,
gives the current flowing between those points in Amperes, according to Ohm's
Law. Voltage is expressed as a signed number of Volts (V). The voltage gradient
in Volts per metre is proportional to the force on a charge.
Voltages are often given relative to "earth" or "ground" which is taken to be at
zero Volts. A circuit's earth may or may not be electrically connected to the
The voltage between two points is also given by the charge present between those
points in Coulombs divided by the capacitance in Farads. The capacitance in turn
depends on the dielectric constant of the insulators present.
Yet another law gives the voltage across a piece of circuit as its inductance in
Henries multiplied by the rate of change of current flow through it in Amperes
A simple analogy likens voltage to the pressure of water in a pipe. Current is
likened to the amount of water (charge) flowing per unit time.
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