<mathematics, specification> Mathematically based techniques for the
specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.
Referentially transparent languages are amenable to symbolic manipulation
allowing program transformation (e.g. changing a clear inefficient specification
into an obscure but efficient program) and proof of correctness.
Oxford FM archive.
FORMAL « formal argument « Formal Description
formal methods » Formal Object Role Modeling
Language » formal review » FORMAT-Fortran