<storage> Memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC
with an 80286 or later processor.
Extended memory is not directly available in real mode, only through EMS, UMB,
XMS, or HMA; only applications executing in protected mode can use extended
memory directly. In this case, the extended memory is provided by a supervising
protected-mode operating system such as Microsoft Windows. The processor makes
this memory available through a system of global descriptor tables and local
descriptor tables. The memory is "protected" in the sense that memory assigned a
local descriptor cannot be accessed by another program without causing a
hardware trap. This prevents programs running in protected mode from interfering
with each other's memory.
A protected-mode operating system such as Windows can also run real-mode
programs and provide expanded memory to them. DOS Protected Mode Interface is
Microsoft's prescribed method for an MS-DOS program to access extended memory
under a multitasking environment.
Having extended memory does not necessarily mean that you have more than one
megabyte of memory since the reserved memory area may be partially empty. In
fact, if your 386 or higher uses extended memory as expanded memory then that
part is not in excess of 1Mb.
See also conventional memory.
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