<mathematics, algorithm> (Or "linear assignment") Any problem involving
minimising the sum of C(a, b) over a set P of pairs (a, b) where a is an element
of some set A and b is an element of set B, and C is some function, under
constraints such as "each element of A must appear exactly once in P" or
similarly for B, or both.
For example, the a's could be workers and the b's projects.
The problem is "linear" because the "cost function" C() depends only on the
particular pairing (a, b) and is independent of all other pairings.
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